Thursday, March 19, 2020
Minority Groups Issue in Modern World Introduction Minority groups have always been part of every society. In any given society, there are those people who are considered weak or lesser by virtue of one aspect or another most of which are natural.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Minority Groups Issue in Modern World specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Women have for a long time considered as minority groups in many societies; always taking the second place after men and always being denies opportunities which they deserve just by the mere fact that they are women. However over the years, the situation has changes and most minority groups and especially women have come out strongly to defend their position in the society. They have formed unions under whose umbrella they fight for their rights ensuring that they are not discriminated against just by the mere fact that they are women. Women have also managed to fight for a level paying ground and an equal pla tform just their male counterparts so that positions of leadership and other influential positions are given by merit and not based on gender or any other consideration. This discussion looks at the range of actions that minority groups are taking to advance their interests within the union movement and what other actions they could take to further their cause. Special attention will be paid to the different strategies and methods that minority groups are currently using or might use to further their goals. Who is a Minority Group? A minority group is segregated group in a society which always small and hence the name minority which is hardly incorporated or recognizes as part of the society. More often, this people are ignored or sort of disregarded and they are not sufficiently involved in social matters especially those that regard development.Advertising Looking for essay on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is the continued sidelining of minority groups over the years that has resulted to the minority groups coming up with various strategies so as to advance their interests and ensure that they also participate actively in various developmental issues and other issues that are of societal concern. Minority groups are based on a number of factors mainly gender, age, sexual affiliation or general perceptions held by an individual (Simpson Yinger, 2005, p. 43). In the modern society, the most common minority groups include women based on their gender, children based on their age, lesbians and gays based on their sexual affiliation and other people who hold views that are not very popular with the rest of the society. As experience may have proven, it is not always easy to live under the umbrella of stereotype that most minority groups have to contend with. It is as if you do not belong in your very own society. It is a stereotype that has seen most of those belonging to minority gr oups attempt to break away if only to be treated in more Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ way. However, with the strategies discussed below, it has become easier for these groups to find a place in the society where they could lead a productive life in the society and prove to the rest of the society that they are no different and can do equally good if not better just like everybody else. Strategies Used One strategy that has proven successful in helping minority groups advance their interests is joining union movements. Usually, a union movement is a group of people who come together with the main goals of ensuring that their interests are taken care of.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Minority Groups Issue in Modern World specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Union movements are common especially among workers in different sectors who come together to ensure that all their rights are respected and that they are able to advance ot her common interests they may have. It has also been noted that unlike in the past where most minority groups considered themselves lesser in their manner and behavior, this has since changed as most minority groups now consider themselves equal with other people (Whitley Kite, 2009, p. 65). In the past, most minority groups seemed to agree with the rest of the community that indeed they were lesser and did not have as equal rights as the rest of the people to access opportunities in different aspects of life. Minority groups have now come out strongly to show the rest of the world that being small in number of holding a view or perception that is not as popular does not make them any less. They have therefore become more assertive than they were previously and this has by and large helped them advance their interests. Unity is another aspect that has helped minority groups thrive and advance e their interest in the increasingly hostile society. Minority groups have been teaming up to form groups of their own with vested interests. For instance, women who have for a long time been considered as minority in many societies have found ways of empowering themselves by coming together to form groups which they use to come up with projects that are highly beneficial to them and to the society in general. Women for instance perhaps due to the fact that it is one of the minority groups that has been with the society for years has become more vocal than any other minority groups.Advertising Looking for essay on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Women have come out strongly to assert their positions and there are now more women in positions of leadership and power more than there were a couple of years back. Women have also formed various help groups and have come up with very successful projects most of which are income generating. Thus, besides providing a steady income to these women, they are also beneficial to the society and they have helped the general society change their general perception about women. Another strategy that most minority groups are using to advance their interest and further their goals is by teaming with non-governmental organizations who provide funding that is required to help kick start their projects. The non governmental organizations have been very instrumental especially in supporting women groups implement their projects thus making the society a better place. Another strategy that has helped minority groups come out from what is seen as cacoon is by actively participating in forums of nat ional issues and general societal concern. Women for instance have been participating in religious issues and some are already holding positions of importance in the religious domain. About a decade ago, women could not be allowed to hold such positions. Women and other minority groups have therefore come out to show the rest of the society that indeed they have equal potential and can equally perform well when given an opportunity. Minority groups have also been holding demonstration in an attempt to have the voice heard. These peaceful demonstrations have helped a great deal because even the government listens to these groups when they demonstrate. The essence of these demonstrations is to make an assertive voice to the government, policy makers and the society in general that the minority groups also have a right to be involved and adequately so in the participation of making decisions. Of all the minority groups that there are, the women and the young people can be said to be th e most successful. Perhaps this is because the basis on which they are considered to be a minority group is not controversial. Lesbians and gays have not been having to easy in trying to find their position in the society. Perhaps due to the fact many people in the society based on their upbringing do not consider these practices correct, the minority groups may be said to be finding it even more challenging than women and young people have. They have however continued to hold peaceful demonstrations asking the society to view them as normal whose sexual affiliation should not be used to alienate them. Unlike when these practices first merged, the society seems to be slowly accepting this group of people although there is still a tendency to look at this group of people as though they are not normal. People suffering from disabilities are also part of minority groups and they have also had a fair share of challenges in having the society accept them and consider them as equally pote ntial people who can deliver when given an opportunity to (Sproule, 1989, p. 123). The media has played a major role in highlighting the plight of minority groups and influencing the society to start viewing these people from a different angle. Currently, there are several people with disabilities who are holding managerial positions and this goes to show that the society is changing positively and learning to accept that disability is not inability. Other tactics that minority groups may use to further their goals and ensure that they have an impact in the society is by ensuring that they are more united than ever before ( Pentassuglia, 2009, p. 54). It has been noted that while segregated groups form unions to represent their rights and interests, the majority of people are left out and this means that there are many people belonging to the minority groups especially at the grass root level who do not have any support. It is important therefore for the lobby groups to ensure that all persons falling under the category of minority groups are well represented. Collaboration with civil rights movements is yet another strategy that will work well in helping the minority groups further their goals. Conclusion Women are perhaps the best example of a minority group that has managed to liberate themselves using most of the above discussed tactics. In the modern world, the woman is holding just as good a position just her male counterpart. In this century, minority groups have risen to show the rest of the society that they are equally part of the society and that they also have a big part to play in making the world a better place. If the trend that most minorities groups are taking is anything to go by, then it would be correct to say that in a couple of years to come, there may in fact not be any minority groups in the society. Instead, there will be many different groups with different agendas but bring considered as rightfully belonging to the larger society. Re ferences Pentassuglia, G. (2009). Minority groups and judicial discourse in international law: a comparative perspective. LA: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. Simpson, G. Yinger, J. (1985). Racial and cultural minorities: an analysis of prejudice and discrimination. London: Springer. Sproule, W. (1989). Minority Groups. New York: Gage. Whitley, B. Kite, M. (2009). The psychology of prejudice and discrimination. NewÃ York: Francis and Taylor.
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Definition and Examples of Marginal Modals in English In English grammar, a marginal modal is a verb (such as dare, need, used to, ought to) that displays some but not all of the properties of an auxiliary. The marginal modals all have meanings that are related to necessity and advice.Ã A marginal modal can be used as either an auxiliary or a main verb. Examples I think we ought to read only the kind of books that wound and stab us.(Franz Kafka, letter to Oscar Pollack, January 27, 1904)I used to live in a room full of mirrors.All I could see was me.(Jimi Hendrix, Room Full Of Mirrors)For Children: You will need to know the difference between Friday and a fried egg. Its quite a simple difference, but an important one. Friday comes at the end of the week, whereas a fried egg comes out of a chicken.(Douglas Adams, The Salmon of Doubt: Hitchhiking the Galaxy One Last Time. Crown, 2002) Characteristics of Marginal Modals Neither the marginal modal nor any of the modal idioms form past or present participles (thus *I have oughted to work hard, *I am oughting to work hard). And although very few semi-auxiliaries participate in compound tenses, a few function adequately as perfects (I have been able/going to/obliged/willing to work hard, I have been about to work hard on several occasions, I have had to work hard) and only two are unquestionably acceptable as progressives (I am being obliged to work hard, I am having to work hard). As a general rule, semi-auxiliaries are reluctant to enter compound tenses.(Richard V. Teschner and Eston E. Evans, Analyzing the Grammar of English, 3rd ed. Georgetown UniversityÃ Press, 2007) Dare and Need As Marginal Modals Ã¢â¬â¹Ã¢â¬â¹As modal verbs, dare and need take a bare infinitive complement in negated and/or inverted structures. They do not have third person singular forms.(128) Or darent you ask?(129) You neednt read every chapter.(130) And dare I suggest that that is the match-winner?(131) Nor need I look further than my own city of Sheffield.As a marginal modal verb need has no past tense: we cannot say, for example *He needed read every chapter. It expresses necessity which is clearly a central modal meaning. Dare is not obviously modal from the point of view of meaning, though it is forward-looking, and is sometimes regarded as instantiating dynamic modality, due to the fact that the act of daring relates to the subject of the clause.(Bas Aarts, Oxford Modern English Grammar. Oxford University Press, 2011)The verb dare . . . is an odd little word. . . . Sometimes its called a marginal modal, but I prefer the description quasi modal. Either label, dare hovers between being an ordinary ga rden-variety verb meaning to challenge and one of these more abstract and grammatically complex verbs conveying a judgment about likelihoodand its this double life that gives rise to some fairly eccentric behaviour. Consider how it forms a negative. Do you say I darent (pronounced darent or dairnt), I dare not, or I dont care? T.S. Eliot might have chosen to phrase the question in The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock as Do I dare to eat a peach? but some of you might prefer Dare I eat a peach? The word order is different, and its also variable whether or not you follow dare with to.Colloquial English is full of these quasi modals. The verb need is one, and so are contracted expressions such as gonna, wanna and halfta. But one of my current favourites is better as in I better do it.(Kate Burridge, Weeds in the Garden of Words: Further Observations on the Tangled History of the English Language. Cambridge UniversityÃ Press, 2005) Used to As a Marginal Modal Used to occurs only in the past tense form, and always includes to. We do not say * I use to go or * I used go. In the negative form, some people prefer it as a main verb (but are often uncertain about the spelling): I didnt (use(d) to go. Others prefer it as an auxiliary verb: I usent/used not to go (especially in Britain).(David Crystal, Rediscover Grammar, 3rd ed. Longman, 2004)[T]here are a number of marginal auxiliaries (dare, need, ought to, used to) that share some of the characteristics of the auxiliaries and a larger group of semi-auxiliaries (auxiliary-like verbs) that convey similar notions of time, aspect, and modality (e.g.: be going to, have to, had better).(Sidney Greenbaum, Oxford English Grammar. Oxford UniversityÃ Press, 1996) Also Known As: marginal auxiliary, marginal modal auxiliary, semi-modal, quasi-modal, semi-auxiliary
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Compare and contrast christianity and hinduism - Essay Example Christians believe in the holy book Bible that is completely different from the holy book of Hindus i.e. Gita. Christians and Hindus have different holy days. Hindus celebrate Holi and Diwali while Christians celebrate Christmas. Concept of life is completely different between Hinduism and Christianity. Hindus believe that every individual is blessed with seven life chances. That essentially means that an individual does not end up on death as per the Hindu belief. Instead, one gains birth seven times before diminishing from this world. Also, one may not necessarily gain life as a human in the next life. What one is blessed or cursed with in a particular life depends upon the deeds one did in the preceding life period. On the other hand, Christians believe in only one life period, like followers of most other religions do. One happens to be in the eternal world after death as per the Christian belief. Christians eat beef whereas Hindus worship cows. This is one of the biggest differences between Hinduism and Christianity. Hindus burn the dead ones and flow the remains of the burnt in the Ganga Jamna, which are their sacred waters. Christians burry their dead ones like Muslims. While comparing Christianity and Hinduism, one finds more differences than similarities. In fact, there is hardly anything similar between Christianity and Hinduism. However, some of the similarities that exist are these: Christians and Hinduism fundamentally believe in one God. No Hindu or Christian is atheist. Both have a belief in the eternal world that follows life in this world. Both Hindus and Christians have their own ideals that are bestowed upon them in order to teach them what is right and what is wrong. Hindus follow Karma and Christians follow Jesus. The extent to which a Hindu and Christian practices his/her religion is decided by the level of compliance with the teachings of Karma and Jesus respectively
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Secret societies - Thesis Example These legislations or law either snatch the right of someone to possess a gun or snatch the right totally from the manufacturers of the guns to produce guns. Many other countries have no such laws or legislations as the governments of these countries believe that these laws would do no good to the current situation of violence but it would rather increase it. Through my essay I would be able to research on the topic of Gun Control and would be able to know as to how it really is affecting the rate of violence nowadays. The readers can further know about the legislations against the possession of arms and would know if these legislations are successful or not. I believe that minimum gun control laws can be helpful in reducing crime rates as it has been witnessed in some real life examples. I believe that I can research on the topic by reviewing journals and articles which would help me to gain an insight in the topic. I would further review both the sides of gun control so that the readers can have a better understanding of the topic. I would put down the points of both the opponents and proponents on gun control laws and then conclude as to which side has stronger arguments. Some of the problems which I might face in writing the essay would possibly be related to researches which do not show statistics or are not complete to give out a conclusion. With every passing year, there are many changes that take place around the globe. These changes are to be met and faced accordingly. Gun control is a subject which lies in a similar category. It was banned a long time ago due to the safety of the citizens in those times and the low crime rate. But since time has changed and more protection is required by everyone, this ban can be revised considering the help that it can provide to people. This can be effective if suitable measures are taken before removing this ban. Huizinga, David, Rolf
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Spirit Of Enquiry Is Vital To Human Fulfilment Philosophy Essay The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious. It is the source of all true art and all science. He to whom this emotion is a stranger, who can no longer pause to wonder and stand rapt in awe, is as good as dead; his eyes are closed. Albert Einstein Humans are by nature curious and enquiring beings. We are also rarely able to be content in the state in which we find ourselves, as there is always something not possessed or obtainable, something we are not fully aware of that we still desire. As we go about our daily lives we experience and actively seek the unknown. Indeed it is generally accepted that enquiry and curiosity generally leads to overwhelmingly positive experiences as opposed to continuing blindly with the mundane nature of everyday life. There is indeed much to be said for searching out new and exciting experiences, giving us a fuller perspective and a greater insight into the world around us. Scientists identify the spirit of enquiry as being synonymous to scientific temper most scientific discoveries, after all, were conceived in the spirit of enquiry. However, is this mental attitude crucial for human satisfaction and fulfilment? The quest for human fulfilment is one which to this day remains largely unsolved; there is of course no correct way to live ones life, otherwise we would all be satisfied. Human fulfilment is difficult to define but for me it represents, at its core, a basic feeling of happiness and satisfaction. Three things which I believe are absolutely paramount to this feeling of fulfilment are: successful relationships, achieving ones aims, and discovery self-discovery or otherwise. These are all inter-linked without venturing into some realm of the unknown, how can we ever have new experiences, achieve ones desires or meet other like-minded people? Enquiry is absolutely essential in leading us to the most fulfilling experiences of our lives, whether it is discovering and reading a book which inspires you to change your life, visiting an entirely new country and immersing yourself in its cultures and traditions or making an important scientific discovery. Whilst some scientific advances have been achieved purely by chance (e.g. the discovery of Penicillin) most require a questioning, seeking mind and perseverance at the highest level. Today science does not tend to advance by chance humans are at such a level of understanding (through our continuation of efforts) that we must in general use a trial and error basis for research, which is where intelligence and our basic feelings of curiosity are hugely important. In a similar way, it is generally accepted that in todays economic climate, a good education is of paramount importance. In a world where places for further education and where jobs are scarce, universities and prospective employers are increasingly looking for individuals who demonstrate this very spirit of enquiry. People who throw themselves into lots of different things are far more appealing than those who do not take advantage of their situation and do not actively seek new experiences; this is because an active and enquiring mind is present in an adaptable, versatile and intelligent individual. Thus, it is conducive to human fulfilment in the sense that it facilitates transition into the working world. Equally vital however is the ability to focus the mind, and not fall into the trap of becoming a jack of all trades, as leaving quests or pursuits unfinished can be the least fulfilling and most tragic thing of all. As well as its rather superficial economic benefits (ease of finding a job etc), an enquiring and curious mind is in my opinion a lot more content than an intellectually apathetic one however, according to various polls, only a small proportion of Americans own passports (the Guardian estimates the number at 22%). Although this is not a definitive sign that they are not mentally inquisitive, it does suggest some of them have little interest in leaving the safety and comfort of their country. However this does not apparently adversely affect their happiness according to a survey from gallup.com, 84% of Americans say they are satisfied with the way things are going in their personal life at this time, while 14% are dissatisfied. In this case, those surveyed feel fulfilled without having to take the leap of leaving their country. There is obviously a significant defence to the argument that only through intellectual curiosity we can be truly fulfilled. However I believe that the more basic intelligence one has, the more one will naturally feel the instinct to explore and to enquire. Those who do will often become enriched by the wealth of knowledge and personal experience gained, and those who dont will either continue unaware of what the world holds and not mind while the rest will undoubtedly feel unfulfilled. There is of course an argument that in some cases, ignorance is bliss. I strongly believe that todays current state of general hysteria (particularly with regard to health and crime) is in some part caused the media whether its claims be misinformed or otherwise, I believe that (warnings about genuine and formidable dangers aside) some things are better left unsaid. Scaremongering the public about the possible carcinogenic properties of everyday foods or the pervasiveness of violent crime is not particularly constructive; it is hard to focus on the things which really matter in life and seek fulfilment in an atmosphere of chronic paranoia in some ways, a more relaxed approach to daily life would be more beneficial to the human spirit. However, I strongly believe that on a more basic level, humans must continue to search spiritually, scientifically and personally if there is any hope for happiness and fulfilment. There is a danger that if we let the important aspects of our lives be pushed aside by apathy and ignorance, we run the risk of losing sight of these things entirely, which would be a tragedy as friendship, love and discovery are the sole paths to human fulfilment and being happy, which in the end is arguably the most important thing we can ever hope to be.
Friday, January 17, 2020
Eliminating Barriers to Cross-Cultural Communication through Curricular Interventions By David Dankwa-Apawu (Lecturer) Ghana Institute of Journalism P. O. Box GP 667 Accra, Ghana +233208704133 +233302228336 [emailÃ protected] co. uk 1 ABSTRACT With the world fast becoming a global village, communicating across cultures has become an inevitable reality. On one hand, cross-cultural communication or intercultural communication presents a fine opportunity to foster global peace and prosperity as we mine the potential value of cultural diversity. Also read: Explain the Importance of Ensuring That Communication Equipment is Correctly Set UpOn the other hand, it can present unpleasant consequences if not well managed. The latter seems more prevalent in our world today as a result of the barriers cultural diversity imposes on intercultural communication. Intercultural or cross-cultural communication barriers such as anxiety, uncertainty, stereotyping, and ethnocentrism are caused by inadequate cultural knowledge and the lack of intercultural communicative skills. Eliminating these barriers will require adequate training in intercultural communication and exposure to cultures outside ours.The school provides the best motivation, structures, and resources for training or socializing our younger generation therefore this paper proposes a number of curricular interventions the school can implement to equip learners to overcome intercultural communication barriers. These interventions include the adoption of multicultural education i n our schools, the introduction of literature and cultural studies as subjects, the use of communicative language teaching approach in teaching language, and the use of the new media in the classroom.The justification (for these interventions) presented in this paper is drawn mainly from published accounts and exploratory ethnographic studies. INTRODUCTION Intercultural communication or cross-cultural communication is a relatively new field of study, yet it has generated a lot of interest. Research in this area has been diverse yet interdisciplinary, making it possible to link intercultural communication to a broad spectrum of disciplines such business, sociology, anthropology, linguistics, and psychology. Studies in intercultural 2 ommunication gained prominence after efforts by anthropologists and linguists like Hall and Lado to link language, culture, and communication (Kramsch, 2001). Initial research in the area focused on developing guidelines or principles for training people who were engaged in multinational businesses, international diplomacy, and missionary activities (Kramsch, 2001). Today, however, many new grounds, in terms of research approaches, have been broken, and more and more theories have been developed to deepen our understanding of intergroup communication.For instance, through various studies it has been possible to distinguish between intercultural and cross-cultural communication, with the former focussing on face-to-face communication between people of different national cultures while the latter involves the comparison of face-to-face communication across cultures (Gudykunst and Mody, 2001). But these two areas are two sides of a coin, and sometimes the terms are used interchangeably (Kramsch, 2001).More than the pioneering work of early researchers, global dynamics have remarkably made the field of cross-cultural or intercultural communication attractive. Today there is rapid internationalization of every institution and system in our world: school, religion, business, governance, and so on. This rapid globalisation, being fuelled by unprecedented technological advancement in transport and telecommunication, means people of different cultural backgrounds are increasingly getting close to one another to maximise the value cultural diversity offers.But as we get face-to-face with people of different cultural backgrounds the challenge of dealing with our cultural differences and harnessing the potential benefits of cultural diversity becomes enormous. Cultural differences have significant impact on our intercultural communication. They are the source of misunderstanding, misinterpretation, 3 anxiety, and uncertainty, which ultimately result in miscommunication (Stephan and Stephan, 2002:127; Gudykunst, 2002; Gudykunst and Lee, 2002).Studies in intercultural or cross-cultural communication are helping shape many facets of our human interaction by drawing attention to the characteristics of verbal and nonverbal be haviour across cultures, the impact of culture in constructing meaning, the structure and communicative goals of discourses, and factors that influence our ability, or otherwise, to interact and interpret discourse (Kramsch, 2001). Theories and empirical studies in intercultural communication have had serious implications for social action and social change (Rogers and Hart, 2002:14).It is the purpose of this paper to justify the inclusion of activities that promote intercultural training in school curriculums. This paper proposes a number of activities or interventions the school can implement to help learners deal with the barriers inherent in intercultural communication, and eventually equip them to be effective communicators. The justification presented in this paper is drawn mainly from published accounts and exploratory ethnographic studies.KEY CONCEPTS Culture, Communication, and Intercultural Communication In studying intercultural communication many researchers have attempt ed to conceptualise culture and communication from various perspectives in order to appreciate their interrelationship. Generally, culture is conceptualised as a shared way of life collectively developed and shared by a group of people and transmitted from generation to generation (Tubbs 4 and Moss, 1994).Culture embodies many complex elements such as beliefs, values, language, political systems, and tools which together give a group its code or characteristics (Griffin, 2000; Tubbs and Moss, 1994). This code is not imposed by one individual or an external body. Rather, it is Ã¢â¬Å"socially constructedÃ¢â¬ (by members that make up the group) and Ã¢â¬Å"historically transmittedÃ¢â¬ (Philipsen, 1992, cited in Griffin, 2000:390). More significantly, culture is owned by a group of people who by consensus accept and share a common code, verbal or nonverbal, reflective of specific values, beliefs, customs, and so on (Barnet and Lee, 2002).Goodenough (1964) views culture not in term s of things or behaviour but in terms of a picture of things a people form in their minds, and their models for perceiving, relating, and interpreting things and behaviour (cited in Barnet and Lee, 2002:276). The convergence one could draw from all these definitions is the fact that each group is bound by a certain unique way of doing things and interpreting things or behaviour. Communication, though variously defined, generally describes a process by which information is exchanged among two or more people in a given context.Ultimately, this process of exchanging information is bound by a purpose: that is, to reduce uncertainty and develop a common understanding among the interactants (Barnett and Lee, 2002). Intercultural communication is thus Ã¢â¬Å"the exchange of information between well-defined groups of people with significantly different culturesÃ¢â¬ (Barnett and Lee, 2002:277). The process is quite complex in the sense that this exchange of information takes place in a co ntext which is a fusion of significantly different systems. The process also requires conscious attempts by each party at reducing Ã¢â¬Å"uncertainty about the future behaviour of the other party through an increase in understanding of the other groupÃ¢â¬ (Barnett and Lee, 2002:277; Gudykunst, 2002). Clearly, cultural variability (the extent to which cultures differ) is key to any conceptualization of intercultural communication. Various studies have examined cultural variability at the level of power distribution (or power distance), uncertainty avoidance, gender roles, face negotiation, individualism-collectivism, and others (Gudykunst and Lee, 2002; Griffin, 2000).One popular conclusion is that cultural variability is the main predictor of how successful one can be in any intercultural communication encounter. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK GudykunstÃ¢â¬â¢s Anxiety and Uncertainty Management Model Gudykunst and associates developed the anxiety and uncertainty management theory to exp lain what happens when we communicate with people of different cultural backgrounds. The theory suggests that when interlocutors of different cultural backgrounds clash in face-to-face interactions, they are confronted with uncertainty (which Gudykunst describes as cognitive) and anxiety (affective) (Griffin, 2000:396).The uncertainty describes our inability to explain actions and reactions of the Ã¢â¬Å"strangersÃ¢â¬ we communicate with. It demonstrates how unsure we are about the interpretations we impute on the behaviour of the people we communicate with (Griffin, 2000). Anxiety, on the other hand, portrays our feeling of uneasiness and apprehension about what might happen in the intercultural communication encounter. The extent to which we are influenced by anxiety and uncertainty would determine how effective we would be in our intercultural communication (Gudykunst, 2000). 6Although anxiety and uncertainty exert some influence on intra-group communication, their impact is p rofound in intercultural communication. Anxiety and uncertainty filter the mutual understanding that must exist to make any communication encounter successful. But anxiety and uncertainty are not entirely negative. Rather they compel us to approach our communication with a level of Ã¢â¬Å"mindfulnessÃ¢â¬ , a deliberate thought over the communication process. In our state of uncertainty and uneasiness, we constantly become conscious of our choices and in the long run manage the communication situations to minimise misunderstanding.In intercultural communication anxiety and uncertainty are heighten by cultural variability. If the differences between cultures are profound, anxiety and uncertainty would increase when members of the different cultural groups engage in intercultural communication. In a schematic representation Gudykunst demonstrates the underlying causes of uncertainty and anxiety as motivational, knowledge and skill factors. For this paper these factors offer relevant support for the need to incorporate various interventions into our school curriculum to train learners in intercultural communication.The skill factors include our ability to empathise, tolerate ambiguities, adapt communication, and gather appropriate information. Knowledge of more than one perspective, similarities and differences, alternative interpretations are some of the knowledge factors relevant for effective intercultural communication. The motivational factors are needs, attraction, social bonds and openness to information. Clearly, all these factors are not divorced from the traditional aims of education for which schools are established. Fundamentally society has vested in the school the responsibility of 7 quipping the young generation with skills, knowledge, and the right motivation for dealing with personal and societal challenges (Sadker and Sadker, 2003: 140; Ornstein, 1995). It is therefore not out of place if the school realigns its curriculum to accommodate interv entions that would train young people in intercultural communication, a growing challenge in this globalised world. Through curricular interventions proposed in this paper learners would acquire the requisite skills, knowledge, and motivation to manage their intercultural communication in more effective ways. Training in ntercultural, among other things, exposes learners to barriers such as anxiety, uncertainty, stereotypes, and ethnocentrism inherent in intercultural communication and equips learners with skills such as mindfulness necessary for managing intercultural communication. This theory strongly support the need for training in intercultural communication and in my view the school has the space, time, orientation, and resources to offer such training. Communicative Competence Hymes (1972) developed the theory of communicative competence to establish a link between language and culture (Richards and Rogers, 1986:69).This theory asserts that both linguistic knowledge and soci ocultural or contextual knowledge are prerequisites for any effective intercultural communication (Richards and Rogers, 1986:69). Communicative competence highlights the view that language and culture are inseparable. Therefore linguistic competence should go along with a commensurate cultural competence, that is, one described as communicatively competent must have both linguistic and cultural competence.Linguistic competence is demonstrated in the grammatical knowledge one possesses, such as knowledge of words, phrases, and sentences and rules governing their combination in discourse. Cultural competence, on the other hand, focuses on the cultural propriety of linguistic choices in a real 8 communication encounter. Different social situations require different routines that are culturally defined. The competent communicator chooses the appropriate linguistic forms that meet the cultural expectation of the context in which the communication takes place.In some contexts in Ghana, fo r instance, Ã¢â¬Å"PleaseÃ¢â¬ is a polite marker not just for requests but all forms of speech acts or discourse, especially with adults. Therefore, it is not uncommon to hear expressions like Ã¢â¬Å"Please, Good morning,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, Please,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Please, my name is KofiÃ¢â¬ . The speaker with communicative competence would have to vary his routines to meet the differences in cultural expectations. If the same communicator meets a native British the above use of Ã¢â¬Å"PleaseÃ¢â¬ would be avoided.The theory of communicative competence lends enough credence to the call for training in intercultural communication in our schools through direct and indirect curricular interventions. Traditionally, our school system has focused on training learners to acquire grammatical knowledge. This paper calls for a commensurate training in contextual competence. Such competence will include knowledge of the different expectations different cultural contexts impose on diff erent communication situations. This knowledge is vital in reducing anxiety and uncertainty which are inherent barriers in intercultural communication.Recent studies in intercultural communication strongly support the need for intercultural training of employees, both domestic and international, in areas of cultural diversity and intercultural communication (Albert, 1994). The position of this paper is that the school (from the basic to the tertiary levels) is a better placed to offer this training. 9 BARRIERS TO INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION Misunderstanding is the ultimate barrier to communication (Griffin, 2000:394). Communication is said to have taken place when interlocutors have been able to reach some common interpretation of their intentions.Even in intra-group communication it is almost impossible to reach absolute understanding. This makes inter-group or inter-cultural communication even more challenging. The existence of cultural variability is in itself a barrier to interc ultural communication. When cultures are widely apart or different, it means the level of cultural variability is high, resulting in high levels of anxiety and uncertainty, which ultimately bring tension and misunderstanding into the intercultural communication situation. To illustrate: I gave a gift to a colleague who came from a different cultural background.My expectation was an extended response of appreciation from him. My disappointment was with the left hand with which he took the gift and the brief appreciation he expressed. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like, or he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t value it. I was worried he would not be nice towards me again. All these interpretations I made reflected my uncertainty about his actions and my anxiety reflected my worry and apprehensions about what might happened. My cultural context reflects a high context type in which more attention is given to interpreting non-verbal behaviours.By sharp contrast my colleague belonged to a low cultural context which stres ses direct and explicit communication, that is, verbal messages are vital in a communication process. 10 Mistranslation Barriers to verbal communication include cultural mistranslation (Tubbs and Moss, 1994). This is common in second and foreign language context. Scholars are divided over how such mistranslation should be perceived (Kachru, 1990). While some have described mistranslation in derogatory terms like Ã¢â¬Å"interferenceÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"sub-standard formsÃ¢â¬ , others have perceived them as innovations which reflect cultural dynamics.But the reality is that in intercultural communication mistranslation undermines understanding. Literal translation such as Ã¢â¬Å"I am going to comeÃ¢â¬ instead of Ã¢â¬Å"I shall returnÃ¢â¬ can be sources of misunderstanding. Expressions such as Ã¢â¬Å"I am going to greet the kingÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"to the white houseÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"to the end roomÃ¢â¬ (meaning Ã¢â¬Å"I am going to the toiletÃ¢â¬ ) are cultural innovations tha t can be sources of misunderstanding in inter cultural communication. Norms and Roles Norms are culturally defined rules for determining acceptable and appropriate behaviour (Tubbs and Moss, 1994).They include those that govern social situations and conversational routines such as greetings, making requests, and expressing various emotions. In intercultural communication interlocutors may be tempted to transfer their cultural norms to contexts that are not appropriate (Richards and Sukwiwat, 1983). Roles are also sources of cultural variability. Roles are sets of norms applicable to specific groups of people in society. In a particular culture, different roles are assigned to men and women, children and parents/guardians, usbands and wives, and so on. In some Ghanaian contexts women are expected to kneel while talking to men; subjects cannot talk directly to a chief except through linguists. Violations of these roles may pose serious threats to intercultural communication. 11 Belief s and Values Beliefs and values impede understanding in intercultural communication. Some interlocutors will not be forthright with information on personal ambition, finances, and career plans because of their beliefs, especially beliefs that assert strong influence of the supernatural on man.Beliefs in witchcraft, for instance, would scare people from giving out personal information to strangers. On the other hand, people would usually readily communicate their values and feelings, especially when such values are being disrespected. Stereotyping Stereotypes are our value judgements about people (Pang, 2001:114). They are born out of our inadequate information about people, making us make unintelligent choices in our intercultural communication. Cultural stereotypes, like any other type of stereotypes, hinder understanding because they exaggerate or overgeneralize what we perceive about people (Tubbs and Moss, 1994).Overgeneralised thoughts result in misinterpretation of actions, th us heightening anxiety, which is a threat to understanding. Almost everyone imposes one stereotype or the other on individuals or groups of people. Stereotypes can be favourable or unfavourable to a group (Pang, 2001). Some stereotypes include perceiving some groups as quick tempered, dishonest, smart, and liars. Generally, stereotypes are born out of our fear of the group we stereotype or the lack of knowledge of the group, or misconceptions, or high levels of cultural variability (Pang, 2001).The media is unfortunately perceived as a strong promoter of stereotypes (Tubbs and Moss, 1994; Pang, 2001). This is because the media is a major source of information about foreigners or strangers. As we watch movies or international news we form exaggerated opinions about the 12 groups represented. Usually the amount of information we gather is limited thus leading us to form such inadequate conclusions. Dispelling stereotypes seems almost impossible, and in intercultural communication the challenge to dispel stereotypes is even more profound.However, since stereotypes are born out of inadequate cultural information or experience of other cultures, cultural awareness and intercultural training can be helpful in dealing with cultural stereotypes. Ethnocentrism Our own cultural experience inadvertently causes us to feel that culture is innate. Hence we are forced to feel or think that our groupÃ¢â¬â¢s way of life is the standard against which all other groupsÃ¢â¬â¢ culture should be assessed. Therefore any contrary code or behaviour is considered improper or irresponsible or politically motivated (Hall, 1976, cited in Tubbs and Moss, 1994:443).This tendency to judge the code of other cultures by using our culture as the standard is described as ethnocentrism. Ethnocentrism creeps into intercultural communication to filter understanding by heightening anxiety, which, as shown, is a threat to understanding (Stephan and Stephan, 1992). The higher the level of ethnocent rism, the higher the level of anxiety. Cross-cultural awareness is can go a long way to reduce ethnocentrism and, invariably, anxiety and enhance our capacity to handle intercultural communication in effective ways.CURRICULA INTERVENTIONS Curriculum refers to the totality of the experience the school offers learners. It includes both planned and unplanned activities, the physical and socio-cultural environment which impact directly or indirectly on the learner. This paper proposes that the school, through its curriculum, make conscious efforts at promoting intercultural training. Below are the interventions proposed: 13 Multicultural Education With the world shrinking into a global village, nations, businesses, schools, organizations, and our societies at large are becoming culturally diverse (Spring, 2002).On daily basis we are compelled by globalization to interact or relate with people of different cultural origin. To deal with the challenges of cultural diversity there is the ne ed for our schools to adopt the multicultural educational approach. Multicultural education is not just accommodation different cultures in a school setting. Rather multicultural education aims at providing an enabling school environment which equips learners to function in other culture without losing ties with their original culture (Spring, 2002).A multicultural school environment brings together learners of different cultural background for the purpose of equipping them with skills, knowledge, and attitudes that will make them functional both to themselves and to the larger society. Such settings are better posed to respond more effectively to children of different cultural backgrounds and exploit those differences as foundations on which new learning can be built (Tozer, Violas, and Senese 2001). Multicultural education directly or indirectly equips learners to be able to manage the uncertainty and anxiety that usually characterise intercultural communication.GudykunstÃ¢â¬â¢s axiom 37 asserts that when we share a common objective with strangers our anxiety levels decrease and we are able to build the needed confidence in predicting their behaviour. At the very superficial level, just putting together people of different cultural origin under the common goal of schooling or education would help reduce misunderstanding that usually comes from uncertainty and anxiety (Griffin, 200:401) 14 A multicultural curriculum offers an excellent educational environment for learners to learn more about people of other cultures, thus reducing stereotypes and ethnocentric tendencies.Stereotypes results from limited experience or information about other cultures. If learners get to experience other learners of different cultural backgrounds they learn more about their cultures. In Ghana, until recently, secondary schools and colleges were characterised by students of different cultural backgrounds. This provided real opportunities for students to appreciate the cultural diversity of the country. Though each school was culturally diverse there existed a strong common bound in each school, especially during inter collegiate competitions.Here diversity well managed brings unity. This situation is unfortunately being replaced by I proposed that when community schools, which are generally culturally homogenous. community schools are established educational systems should promote diversity in the positing of students to school and colleges. Cultural Studies Not long ago, cultural studies was a subject in basic schools in Ghana and learners were exposed to the diverse cultural groups in the country. Beneficiaries of this curriculum acquired basic knowledge of the different cultural groups.They had the opportunity to acquire, among other things, knowledge of conventional routine differences, differences in political institutions and values. A unique feature of the cultural studies curriculum was the approach. Teachers were encouraged to use resource person s in their communities. These were indigenes of the cultures being represented or taught. Again, role plays, field trips and audio visual materials were included in the teaching methods of the subject.Cultural studies provided a platform for learners to juxtapose their culture with others in order to appreciate the diversity and its prospects, especially in this age of globalisation. 15 Cultural knowledge reduces Ã¢â¬Å"cultural shockÃ¢â¬ which sometimes leads to negative attitude towards a new culture (DeVito, 2002). GudykunstÃ¢â¬â¢s axiom 41 supports the view that an increase in our knowledge of strangersÃ¢â¬â¢ language and culture will produce an increase in our ability to manage our anxiety and an increase in our ability to accurately predict their behaviour (Griffin, 2000:400).Certainly there are enough reasons for the inclusion of cultural studies in our school curriculum. The Study of Literature Literature as a discipline provides an ideal opportunity to integrate cult ural content into the school curriculum (Pang, 2001:224). While providing delight and enjoyment, literature sharpens our imaginations and offers us a vicarious experience in the world we live in (Huck, Helper, Hickman, and Kiefer, 2001:8). Literature offers us the fastest, cheapest, but the most thrilling cruise around the world. The experience we enjoy in literatures is timeless as we read from across the globe.We can also travel as far back as the era of Beowulf, Sophocles, Chaucer, and Shakespeare or fly into the year 2044 in Welwyn Wilton KatzÃ¢â¬â¢s Time Ghost. In all these experiences literature offers a unique approach to learning about the culture of people in different parts of the world, how their culture existed, how it is evolving, and how it may change with time. Texts which portray authentic intercultural interactions provide readers with the motivation, knowledge, and skills to overcome anxiety, uncertainty, and other barriers of intercultural communication.The Comp rehensiveness of literature experience provides meaningful ways of reducing stereotyping and ethnocentric tendencies. 16 Language Teaching and Learning Traditional language curriculums focus on grammatical competence while communicative competence suffers neglect. Products of such curriculums usually display high competence in linguistic knowledge but lack requisite skills in handling authentic communication (Dzamishie, 1997; Richards and Rogers, 1986; Richards and Sukwiwat, 1983). What they lack is a basic understanding of the socio-cultural function of language.In second and foreign language learning contexts the challenge has always been which model learners should be exposed to and which language culture should be emphasised. Of course it makes sense to adopt the target or native speaker model, with all the cultural attachments, as medium of instruction. But such a choice without recourse to the changing communication needs of learners will not be appropriate. To address the dil emma of which model to use, Norrish (1978) calls for a liberalisation of views on non standard language varieties. The English language, for instance, has metamorphosed into several Englishes.Therefore, Ã¢â¬Å"to teach only one form of English would seem to be asking for a conflict between the different Englishes in use. Ã¢â¬ (Norrish 1978:35). The most meaningful approach then is to Ã¢â¬Å"consider the different uses of English in a particular countryÃ¢â¬ (Norrish, 1978:35). The question should be: Which models will serve the communication needs of learners? If learners need English to communicate with native speakers, then the native model should be taught. Similarly, if learners would largely communicate in a typical Ghanaian context, for instance, then the Ghanaian model, with its cultural innovations, should be the model.In so far as it is possible, more than one model should be taught. This is the poly-model Norrish proposes. The poly-model exposes 17 learners to the cul ture behind language. It emphasises socio-cultural or contextual awareness in communication especially between inter-groups. Concerning approach, the communicative language teaching model is popular today (Richards and Rogers, 1986; Dzameshie 1997). This approach focuses on communicative competence. Its curriculum is experience-based and learner-centred (Richards and Rogers, 1986).The content generally includes Ã¢â¬Å"well-selected experiencesÃ¢â¬ that reflect the real life or authentic communication needs of learners (Richard and Rogers, 1986). The value of this approach in intercultural communication is the experience the language curriculum offers. Communicative language teaching addresses learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ language needs, equipping them to communicate effectively in a world of cultural diversity. The New Media in the classroom The digital age is not only making it easier and faster for us to get closer to each other, it is also making it possible for us to see and know what ot hers are doing.The new media in the classroom provides learners with a window through which they can see people of other cultures. Through virtual tours to places of different cultural backgrounds, documentaries, interviews, and social sites, learners bridge the gap of knowledge they know about people on the other side of their culture. The prospects are tremendous but the challenges are enormous. The digital divide is still too wide for us to be able to explore other cultures. In many developing countries access to the new media is still a luxury. 18IMPLICATIONS The inclusion of intercultural training in our school curriculum is worthwhile for our schools, and the world of work, which are fast becoming culturally diverse. Unfortunately many students, teachers, and school authorities are being frustrated by the diversity invading the school. Training learners and educators to deal with the barriers diversity creates in their intercultural relationships will transform our schools int o peaceful and conducive learning and working environments while preparing learners to face the communication realities in the world outside the school.Intercultural training will certainly link the school with industry or the world of work. If the school provides adequate intercultural training through various curricular activities, it will reduce the cultural shock learners are bound to face after school. Although many disciplines are craving for attention and inclusion in our school curriculum and curriculum developers are overwhelmed by what should be where at what time and with what resource, the best decision lies in counting the cost, weighing the options available and taking bold political and socio-economic steps.Implementing these curricula interventions would involve the realignment of the school curriculum, bearing in mind various needs and interests. In this case there should be a clear policy framework that will guide design, implantation, and evaluation of the new cur riculum being proposed. Again, there would be the need to adequately resources our schools to accommodate the changes proposed. CONCLUSION This paper has proposed that the school curriculum provide space for activities that will train learners to overcome barriers inherent in intercultural communication.There could be many other interventions, but what this paper seeks to suggest is that interventions through the school 19 curriculum should be the first option. Neither educational level nor geographical boundaries are specified in this paper. This is born out of the belief that intercultural relation or communication is real and knows no limits. This paper has provided justification for the inclusion in our school curriculum training in intercultural communication. The next challenge that should attract the attention of researchers is how to design, implement, and evaluate the propose curricula change.REFERENCES Albert, R. D. (1994). Cultural Diversity and Intercultural Training in Multinational Organizations. In Wiseman, R. L. and Shuter, R. (eds. ) Communicating in Multinational Organizations. International and Intercultural Communication Annual. Vol xviii (153165). London: Sage Publications. Barnett, G. A. and Lee, M. (2002). Issues in Intercultural Communication Research. In Gudykunst, W. B. and Mody B. (eds. ) Handbook of International and Intercultural Communication (pp 275-290). London: Sage Publications. DeVito J. A. (2002). Messages: Building Interpersonal Communication Skills.Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Dzameshie, A. K. (1997). Towards a Communicative Approach to Teaching English as a Second Language in Ghana. In Dakubu, M. E. K. (ed. ) English in Ghana (pp 173-194). Accra: Ghana English Studies Association. Griffin, E. (2000). A First Look at Communication Theory. Boston: McGraw-Hill. Gudykunst, W. B. (2002). Intercultural Communication Theories. In Gudykunst, W. B. and Mody B. (eds. ) Handbook of International and Intercultural Communication (pp 183-2 05). London: Sage Publications. 20 Gudykunst, W. B. and Lee, C. M. (2002).Cross-Cultural Communication Theories. In Gudykunst, W. B. and Mody B. (eds. ) Handbook of International and Intercultural Communication (pp 25-50). London: Sage Publications. Gudykunst, W. B. and Mody, B. (2002). Foreword. In Gudykunst, W. B. and Mody B. (eds. ) Handbook of International and Intercultural Communication (pp 25-50). London: Sage Publications. Huck, C. S. ; Helper, S. ; Hickman, J. ; and Kiefer, B. Z. (2001). ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Literature in the Elementary School. Boston: McGraw-Hill. Kachru, B. (1990). World Englishes and Applied Linguistics.World Englishes 9 (1): 3-20. Kramsch, C. (2001) Intercultural Communication. In Carter, R. And Nunan, D. (eds. ) The Cambridge Guide to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (pp 201-206). Cambridge: CUP Norrish, J. (1978). Liberalisation of views on non-standard forms of English. In The British Council. ELT documents: English as an international la nguage. London: The British Council, English Teaching Information Centre, pp. 34-39. Ornstein, A. C. (1990). Strategies for Effective Teaching. Madison: Brown and Benchmark Publishers. Pang, V. O. (2001).Multicultural Education: A Caring-Centred, Reflective Approach. Boston: McGraw-Hill. Rogers, E. M. and Hart, W. B. (2002). The Histories of Intercultural, International, and Development Communication. In Gudykunst, W. B. and Mody B. (eds. ) Handbook of International and Intercultural Communication (pp 1-18). London: Sage Publications. Richards, J. C. and Rogers, T. S. (1986). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching: A Description and Analysis. Cambridge: CUP 21 Richards, J. C. and Sukwiwat, M. (1983). Language Transfer and Conversational Competence. Applied Linguistics 4 (2): 113-125.Sadker, D. M and Sadker M. P. (2003). Teachers, Schools and Society. Boston: McGraw-Hill. Spring, J. (2002). American Education. Boston: the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Stephan, C. W. and Stephan, W . G. (2002). Cognition and Affect in Cross-Cultural Relations. In Gudykunst, W. B. and Mody B. (eds. ) Handbook of International and Intercultural Communication (pp 127-142). London: Sage Publications. Tozer, S. E. ; Violas, P. C. , and Senese, G. (2002). School and Society. Boston: McGraw-Hill. Tubbs, S. L. and Moss, S. (1994). Human Communication. Boston: McGraw-Hill. 22
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Evans HUM 2210 REVIEW SHEET EXAM 1 LISTS 1. Features that identify a society as civilized a. Agriculture (irrigation) and breeding of animals = surplus food (goats, peig, cattle, sheep). Wheat, barley, rice, and maize.(SciTech- polish stone tools. Ex: stone sickles) b. Cities: large apartment settlements= standard architecture surplus manpower c. Writing (Ã¢â¬Å"gifts of the godsÃ¢â¬ )= records. Pictograph, ideogram, cuneiform. d. Institutions for centralized inherited power . - Priesthood for centralized sacred ritual . - Kingship for centralized political and social structure (Paraoh= kings in Egypt) . 2. Geographical areas of early civilizationsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Truth is painful. c. Logic: Aristotle - Student of Plato, founded school in Athens, 335 B.C. - Organized natural sciences into biology, zoology, botany - Theory of Universals: Inductive Science: Universals discovered from particulars, therefore studying the material world can (only) produce universals/ absolutes. PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s dualism devalued study of material world. - Deductive/Formal Logic for ethics and science Hellenistic: a. Epicuranism - Founder: Epicurus (341-271 B.C.) - Atomist: all matter made up of atoms so all forms are random; no controls - No afterlife: death= end; no judgment - Absolute free will: each creates own destiny; absolute individuality - Goal of life: Pleasure (hedone hedonism) *individual pleasure - society would crush Pleasure: absence of pain. Pain unsatisfied desires. Minimal desires Peace pleasure; harmony = agreement between desires and fulfillment. Life of Moderation (Ex: cr edit card vs. cash budget). b. Stoicism *Resistance cause pain, learn to live the Stoic life. - Founder: Zeno (334-262 B.C.) - Social Logos (=Heraclitus): All natural and society controlled by reason. The destiny of one is the FOR THE GOOD OF THE WHOLE. 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